Several species of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae) distributed in the Indian subcontinent and South-East Asia are also semelparous and flower at intervals of 3–12 years. 3). Strobilanthes carmelensis, a plietesial new species apparently ascribable to the Strobilanthes kunthiana-group, is described for the flora of Western Ghats (India, Wayanad District, State of Kerala). It is a perennial plant. Pollen foraging was observed only in the morning hours (07.00–11.00 h), whereas nectar feeding was recorded throughout the day. Each stamen is 2.15 ± 0.1 cm in length, and the anther length is 2.22 ± 0.25 mm. During the festival, women ritually destroy the plants, where the invading soldiers hid according to legend. Strobilanthes kunthiana Small bluish violet campanulate flower with one side of the corolla slightly swollen from the base; set in dense broad bracted spikes. The number of flowers visited during the day was calculated for both days. A popular weekend getaway for people from bordering districts, a honeymooner’s paradise and a summer retreat - the multifaceted Kodaikanal is one … The number of ovules in each ovary was counted through dissections under a stereomicroscope. Flowers offer both pollen and nectar as reward. Mature fruits were harvested before dehiscence and the number of seeds was counted. Strobilanthes callosus, commonly called Karvy or Maruadona, grows on the west coast of India. It is well established that the floral traits of species influence most aspects of reproduction (Ashman & Majetic, 2006). On the day of anthesis, the bags were opened in the morning hours and the flowers were pollinated with either self- (pollen from another flower of the same plant) or cross- (pollen from another plant) pollen and rebagged (N = 50 each). To study the floral phenology, flower buds (N = 30) that would open the next day were tagged and kept under observation to record anthesis, anther dehiscence, and other floral changes until they senesced. Strobilanthes sessilis is a semelparous species reported to flower once in seven years. As our preliminary studies showed that Apis cerana indica was the only frequent visitor to the flowers, the frequency of visits, foraging behaviour (for pollen/nectar), and foraging time were recorded for A. cerana indica. 4. In addition to her role as a wiseGEEK editor, Niki enjoys educating herself about interesting An interesting feature of the flower of S. kunthianus is the dehiscence of anthers only in response to touch by a visiting insect. Bees foraged nectar exclusively on the second day. It was therefore possible to record whether the bee foraged pollen or nectar during each visit (Fig. Wikibuy Review: A Free Tool That Saves You Time and Money, 15 Creative Ways to Save Money That Actually Work. A beetle and a grasshopper were seen feeding on the petals; they did not come into contact with the anthers or the stigma. Figure 9 presents the results. When a bee enters the flower, it first brushes the receptive surface of the stigma and reaches the anthers for foraging. Monocarpic plants die after flowering and fruiting. These features suggest that stigma sensitivity evolved later than semelpary. KRS acknowledges the Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, for the award of INSA Senior Scientist. Search for other works by this author on: Genetic constraints on floral evolution: a review and evaluation of patterns, Bateman's principle and plant reproduction: the role of pollen limitation in fruit and seed set, Pollen quantity and quality as explanations for low seed set in small populations exemplified by, Multiyear study of pollen limitation and cost of reproduction in the iteroparous, Resolution of male–female conflict in an hermaphroditic flower, Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, Hummingbird foraging position is altered by the touch-sensitive stigma of bush monkeyflower, Evaluation of pollen viability by enzymatically induced fluorescence; intracellular hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate, Mast flowering and semelparity in bamboos: the bamboo fire cycle hypothesis, Pollen limitation of plant reproduction: pattern and process, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, Flowering incidences and breeding system in, The flowering of the strobilanths (Acanthaceae), Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, Significance of the behavior of sensitive stigmas, Significance of the behavior of sensitive stigmas II, Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, Correlated evolution of dichogamy and self-incompatibility: a phylogenetic perspective. Abstract Strobilanthes kunthiana (Nees) T. Anderson ex Benth locally known as Neelakurinji is an endemic to Western Ghat, India and belongs to the Acanthaceae family. Strobilanthes kunthiana, kurinji or neelakurinji, is a shrub that is found in the shola forests of the Western Ghats in South India. 3. With the area under the plant fast diminishing owing to the denudation of land for cultivation, mass migration of jungle fowl has not been seen in recent years. For studies on floral morphology, details of the floral whorls were studied and all the floral parts were measured (N = 25). The difference in insect visitation per flower during several time slots was highly significant [Kruskal–Wallis test: H = 128.02 (d.f. As semelparous plants have only one chance to reproduce, they are expected to develop effective strategies to prevent reproductive failure. The stigma was receptive soon after anthesis and continued to remain receptive until 48 h after anthesis. There was no apomixis, as none of the emasculated and bagged flowers set fruit. STROBILANTHES ATTENUATA SEEDS - Plant World Seeds. Although most of the pollen is foraged in the morning hours on the first day, the flowers offer a considerable amount of nectar to the visitors, and the stigma remains receptive even on the second day. It means that flowering and fruiting only occurs once in the life span of this plant. The plant Neelakurinji (Strobilanthes kunthiana) flowers once in every 12 years. Its bright purple flowers bloom once every eight years, between July and September. Flower buds were emasculated and bagged 1 day before anthesis. Microcapillaries (1 and 10 μL) (microcaps, Drummonds) were used to measure the amount of nectar present in the flower. During the peak of flowering, two to four flowers open on each day in each inflorescence. Only young, well-grown plants are attractive, the older ones becoming weedy and unattractive. The bee remained near the mouth of the corolla tube during pollen foraging (Fig. Nilgiri Hills, which literally means the blue mountains, got their name from the purplish blue flowers of Neelakurinji that blossoms only once in 12 years. Studies on bamboos have not involved controlled pollinations and thus no conclusions can be drawn on the breeding system. Mass flowering of Strobilanthes kunthianus during 2006 at Eravikulam National Park, Kerala, India. It is a highly variable ornamental shrub, native of the neotropics. Strobilanthes kunthiana is readily distinguished from other members of the group by the farinose indumen-tum on the lower leaf surface. To determine the period of stigma receptivity, hand pollinations were conducted on bagged flowers at 6-h intervals (N = 10 at each interval) starting with anthesis until 48 h. The pistils were fixed 24 h after pollination in formalin–acetic acid–alcohol (FAA; 5 : 5 : 90, v/v), and were later employed to study pollen germination and pollen tube growth using the aniline blue fluorescence method (Shivanna & Rangaswamy, 1992). (Left) An Aerides ringens orchid growing on a shola tree; (Right) Neela-Kurinji or Strobilanthes kunthiana flowering in the grassland habitats of the Nilgiris. The foraging time (15–20 s per flower) did not vary markedly, except in the last hour (18.00 h) when it was drastically reduced (2.5 s). Bamboos are well-known semelparous plants and the flowering frequency ranges from 3 to 120 years in different species (Janzen, 1976; Keeley & Bond, 1999). In proper conditions, it will also produce pale purple flowers. Although reproductive synchrony, a characteristic feature of semelparous species, is known to enhance the plant's ability to attract pollinators (Janzen, 1976; Augspurger, 1980; Stephenson, 1982), the large number of fresh flowers available on each plant results in a high degree of geitonogamy. Strobilanthes Kunthiana. Leaves Our observations clearly show that pollinators visit the flowers on the second day, although the number of visits is much lower than on the first day. There are many hypotheses, mostly with reference to bamboos, on the origin of semelpary: predator satiation, fire cycle hypothesis, increase in resource availability, and a mechanism for escaping parasites (Janzen, 1976; Keeley & Bond, 1999). The amount of nectar decreased gradually on the second day and, by 18.00 h, it was only about 1.5 μL. Photo: Godwin Vasanth Bosco. Jun 22, 2014 - Flickr is almost certainly the best online photo management and sharing application in the world. Detailed studies on Mimulus aurantiacus (Fetscher & Kohn, 1999; Fetscher, 2001) have shown that the main adaptive significance of stigma closure is to reduce interference with pollen dissemination. These plants are generally annual or biennial. Shola-grassland mosaic in danger List of various diseases cured by Strobilanthes Crispus. Strobilanthes carmelensis, a plietesial new species apparently ascribable to the Strobilanthes kunthiana-group, is described for the flora of Western Ghats (India, Wayanad District, State of Kerala). The extension of floral longevity for 2 days enables pollination on the second day of flowers that remain unpollinated on the first day. Very few mono-carpic fruits are perennial. Strobilanthes kunthiana, kurinji or neelakurinji, is a shrub that is found in the shola forests of the Western Ghats in South India. This plant grows on the hill tracts of Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Kerala. No pollen was deposited on any of the vaseline-coated slides hung on the branches; hence, it was concluded that wind does not play any role in the pollination of this species. A perennial herb or subshrub with numerous erect quadrangular stems.Blossoms gregariously once in 12 years. In Pambar merges with the Chinnar river at Koottar. (Strobilanthes kunthiana) When the kurinji shrub, native to southern India, blooms, it turns large swaths of hillside bluish purple. The mass blooming of the Strobilanthes kunthiana, known commonly as the neelakurinji, gave the Nilgiris (the Blue Mountains) its iconic name. Floral visitors were monitored from 06.00 h (starting at flower opening) to 18.00 h for 15 min in each hour for 3 days, covering a randomly selected site on each day. Meera Bhardwaj The Republic of Ballari does it again as indiscriminate mining contaminates groundwater sources in Sandur. Following dehiscence, the anthers turned blue. That happens about once every 12 years because the plant synchronizes its reproductive phase as a survival mechanism, flooding the area with new plants in order to outnumber predators, such as wildebeests. Visitation rates for Apis cerana indica (mean ± standard deviation). Microscopic examination of the stigmas collected randomly from senescing flowers (on the third day, N = 25) showed 100% pollination. = 11, N = 240), P = 0.0001]. The thick, dark honey produced by bees from S. callosus nectar is a local delicacy. Very few mono-carpic fruits are perennial. Mean foraging visits of Apis cerana indica for pollen (filled bars) and nectar (open bars) during the day (mean ± standard deviation). 5) and entered deep into the corolla tube to forage nectar. Meera Bhardwaj The Republic of Ballari does it again as indiscriminate mining contaminates groundwater sources in Sandur. In another experiment, the visits of A. cerana indica to the same set of flowers on the first and second day were monitored. The leaves of the plant are poisonous, but are used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory ailments and gastrointestinal disorders. In Pambar merges with the Chinnar river at Koottar. The flow of underground, perennial waters from the Sri Harishankara Temple is now contaminated with ore particles. The cycle can be from eight to 16 years long, depending upon the species. Why Strobilanthes Kunthiana is in the news? Strobilanthes kunthianus flowered during August–October 2006 (Fig. In general, protandry has been attributed to the avoidance of interference in pollen transmission (Bertin & Newman, 1993; Routley, Bertin & Husband, 2004). Its purplish blue flowers bloom once every 12 years. The curved, tubular violet flowers are produced over a long and valuable flowering season - usually until October or even later. A perennial herb or subshrub with numerous erect quadrangular stems.Blossoms gregariously once in 12 years. We thank Mr Sajan Varma, Cochin, for Figure 1. Names of Strobilanthes Crispus in various languages of the world are also given. In conclusion, several cumulative floral traits – the life of the flower extending for 2 days with adequate floral rewards and stigma receptivity, sensitive stigma to expose the receptive surface to the path of the incoming pollinator and away from the outgoing pollinator, dehiscence of anthers in response to the pollinator's visit, and self-compatibility – have enabled S. kunthianus to achieve the mast seeding habit. Strobilanthes kunthiana, kurinji or neelakurinji, is a shrub that is found in the shola forests of the Western Ghats in South India. Reports of the movement of the stamen when touched by the pollinator to bring the anthers into contact with the body of the insect (Faegri & van der Pijl, 1979; Meeuse, 1996) are not comparable with the situation in Strobilanthes. Fig. After the flowers die, the shrub is covered with fruits, which become dry by the following year. Strobilanthes dyerianus, native to Myanmar, is commonly called Persian Shield and is prized for its interesting foliage, dark green with metallic purple stripes radiating out from the center of the leaf. Each ovary bears four ovules. It is a soft-stemmed, tropical, evergreen shrub or subshrub that is grown primarily for its attractive iridescent purple foliage. As the pollen was heavily foraged during the morning hours, there was hardly any left in the afternoon on the first day of opening. A long-lived gregariously flowering semelparous plant is even more committed to this single event because all of its kin will flower and die at the same time. Herkogamy, Pollination failure in plants: why it happens and when it matters, Ecology and evolution of long-lived semelparous plants, Population genetic structure and species delimitation in the, Disentangling the ecological basis of floral trait variation in Neotropical, Stomatal rings: structure, functions and origin, Floral traits that facilitate pollination efficiency, About Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2008.00786.x, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 The Linnean Society of London. To our knowledge, bamboos are the only other semelparous species for which some scattered information is available on the breeding system (Janzen, 1976). Strobilanthes are mostly erect half-shrubby plants cultivated for their flowers and foliage. Semelpary is found in a wide range of plant species covering at least 20 families (Young & Augspurger, 1991). The Nilgiri ... Perennial streams sprung from the Sanctuary provide source of drinking water to the adjoining villages of Kadavary, Kottakombur, Kovilur and Vattavada. This occurs due to its genetic structure, which may surprise some amateur researchers. It is the time Neelakurinji, a flower with 40 odd varieties, blossoms in all its grandeur. Stems sulcate, glabrous. Monocarpic plants are those that flower, set seeds and then die.. The anthers can be induced to dehisce by a gentle touch with a needle. The style is 1.86 ± 0.14 cm in length and is held in place at the tip by a narrow groove on the posterior petal. The evolution of self-compatibility has removed this major constraint, although this may have involved evolutionary compromise to a certain extent. It is perhaps the best-known species of Strobilanthes and its semelparous life event is well recorded with mass flowering incidents documented every 12years since 1838 (Robinson 1935; Matthew 1971). The surrounding fragmented Shola forests form part of the Mannavan Shola National Park. This curvature cycle of the stigma occurs irrespective of the pollen load and also continues on the second day. 6). Matthew (1971) also reported a 12-year flowering cycle for this species in the Palni Hills. This spectacle takes place only once in 12 years. During exiting, the body of the pollen-loaded bee does not come into contact with the stigma. Bagged flowers were excised at 4-h intervals (N = 10 at each interval), starting from flower opening until 18.00 h on the first day, and again from 06.00 to 18.00 h on the second day, and the quantity of nectar was measured. perennial plants can be further divided into two as monocarpic and polycarpic (iteroparous). Flowers opened between 06.00 and 09.00 h. They remained fresh on the second day and senesced on the third day. The blooming season draws a large number of pollinators, including butterflies, birds, and bees. 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Treatments are given in Table 1 compound microscope flowering season - usually until October or even later of.