This dual number is specific to Sanskrit and must be used accordingly. Learn in-depth about Verbs in Sanskrit. However in neither case the verb depends upon the gender. Hindi sentence Sanskrit sentence; 1. But before we get started, let me explain how these grammar lessons are structured. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Just select the sentence from the drop-down list. Home > Sanskrit Online Tools > Sanskrit Sentences Sanskrit Sentences What can I do with Sanskrit Sentences? In case of setences 7 to 12, the Subject (कर्ता / kartaa) is in 3rd person plural (प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana). आशीर्लिं ङ् and विधिर्लिं ङ् ) 5. Present Continuous Timeline. सूरज एक सितारा है. Sanskrit past and future verb tenses are “by default” perfective in aspect, i.e. Here is 50 Sentences of Simple Present Tense; 1. In this post, we will try providing some Sanskrit sentences with English meanings so that readers who have started studying or learning Sanskrit from some sources could enhance their reading and understanding skills of this language. baalakaha / saha / eshaha / kaha / bhavaan पठिष्यति pathishyati भविष्यत्कालः. Learning Sanskrit - This document is the first one with examples of roots belonging to Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10 being conjugated in the Present Tense. My son lives in London. But before we get started, let me explain how these grammar lessons are structured. वह बेल से फूल चुनता है। सः लतायाः पुष्पाणि चिनोति। 2. My father doesn’t speak good English. View the grammatical structure of example Sanskrit sentences. your own Pins on Pinterest Present Tense Verbs. She is eating insects. 10 Examples of Simple Present Tense Sentences My son lives in London. It usually rains every day here. You will know about many more nouns (शब्द / shabda) and verbs (धातु / dhaatu) in those. ; How do I use the Sanskrit Sentences? Michael doesn’t work. The followings are the dual number form of above sentences. The present tense. Englishman's Greek, Chapter 8, The Greek Verb, Special issue: The Lithuanian Language — Past and Present. Read the lesson and the rules of formation on p. 39 of the Sanskrit Notes handouts. The imperfect, laṅ लङ्, (which we learned earlier in lesson 5 and lesson 6 ), the aorist, luṅ लुङ् (which we will learn in a later lesson), and the perfect, liṭ लिट् (which we will learn in this lesson). Jones became a Sanskrit enthusiast and communicated that enthusiasm to the intellectual world of Europe of the time through his writings. As you surely know, the roots residing in those four Gaṇa-s or Houses have their bases unchangeable (Gana,G - The sun of Sanskrit knowledge How to learn past tense in Sanskrit and speak fluently. In setences 1 to 6, the Subject (कर्ता / kartaa) is in 3rd person singular (प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). लृट्लकार (lRRiTlakaara) verb-forms represent the future tense in a sentence. Literary Terms and Definitions F - Carson-Newman College, Invitation Letter Format Class 12, Examples (Formal, Informal), Literary Terms and Definitions: S - Carson-Newman College, "Knowing" Words in Indo-European Languages, examples of present tense verbs in spanish, example of present tense active and passive voice, examples of present tense sentences in french, examples of present tense verbs in sentences, chapter 8 1 energy and life worksheet answer key, examen de artes visuales 1 secundaria bloque 2, entry test past papers of cadet college hasan abdal, interview questions and answers for executive chef, printable personality test with answer key, test para licencia de conducir en maryland, pedagogy mcqs with answers for nts in urdu, merchants of cool video questions and answers, cesaire notebook of a return to the native land essays. At the end of this chapter in Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 1 a collection of many Sanskrit sentences using लृट्लकार / lRRiTlakaara are given. NCERT Solutions present tense. 3. samskratabhaashaayaam (bhootakaalaha, bhavishyatkaalaha, vartamaanakaalaha) iti trayaha kaalaaha santi. But we are following the traditional grammarians in this book. Home > Sanskrit Online Tools > Sanskrit Sentences Sanskrit Sentences What can I do with Sanskrit Sentences? She plays basketball. Introduction; Present Tense (Laṭ) . Jul 30, 2016 - This Pin was discovered by Nimmi Shyam. Sanskrit has three more tenses: two more varieties of past tense and an additional variety of future tense. One variety of the past tense is Past Perfect or simply Perfect, called parokṣabhūtaḥ in Sanskrit, meaning something which happened long ago. In case of 19 and 20 the Subject is in first person plural (उत्तमपुरुष बहुवचन / uttamapuruSha bahuvachana). For example the root for the verb read is 'path (पठ्)'. NCERT Solutions He catches the train every morning. Obviously, these sentences can be easily translated to the Sanskrit language, but in a rush to do so, let us not neglect a few factors. In this chapter we will study about future tense. 5. अपठत् apathat भूतकालः. Remember that an adjective modifies a noun or pronoun. The two future tenses given in Hart, pp. This tense is a very important tense where it is used. The tenses directly relate to the time associated with the activity specified in the verb, i. e. , whether the This can be today’s future time or a recent and future continuous time., whereas the periphrastic is used for a more remote future time. We use the modal auxiliaries ‘shall’ and ‘will’, with the present tense, etc. The present tense is of four types. General introduction to the tenses Examples of present tense in sanskrit. He is going to England. The element that determines the way a verb functions in the simple sentences is called root form of the verb, root form in Sanskrit is known as “Dhatu”. After this session you can make stories. 1. lzq Present tense 2. lHq Past tense - imperfect 3. l⁄Hq Past tense - aorist 4. In Sanskrit, verbs are associated with ten different forms of usage. 10 Sentences in Present Perfect Tense in English Present Perfect Tense is an English tense describing the uncertain Past Tense. You are preparing too hard. She plays basketball. 10 sentences in simple present tense in english When we use the English language, we sometimes refer to the general truths that are accepted by everyone, or to a general and sustained action. Present Tense Verbs. singular (प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). The first one is recent past, the second … Just select the sentence from the drop-down list. This tense is a very important tense where it is used. गुरु शिष्य को धर्म की बात बताता है। गुरु शिष्यं धर्म शास्ति।। 3. Here are 10 sentences of the present continuous tense. (Past participles have been dealt with above). It usually rains every day here. We are eating vegetables. Let us learn more about the present tense and its types. In case of first person the kartaa is always अस्मद् (asmad) शब्द (shabda). To make it … Only the number and person are followed by verb. Lesson 47 – Features of Vedic Sanskrit – Tense Systems and the Subjunctive | our sanskrit says: 02/09/2018 at 11:03 am The subjunctive was three to four times as common as the optative in the Rigveda. It smells very delicious in the kitchen. 1. In case sentences 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10 and 11 the Subject are in musculine (पुङ्लिन्ग / puN^linga) gender. Let us leave the sweet euphony of Bangla to our poets, and the salvation-enhancement of Sanskrit to our priests. Past Tense in Sanskrit for beginners : You will learn about past tense (lang laakaar/लङ्लकार) with examples and tips of how to construct sentences in the past tense. Examples 1: Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10; Examples 1: Gaṇa-s 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9 The four systems are the Present System, the Perfect System, the Aorist System, and the Future System. Have you ever wanted to …. He gets up early every day. लट्लकार / laTlakaara (Present Tense): लट्लकार (laTlakaara) represents verb-forms in present tense (वर्तमानकाल / vartamaanakaala). ¢v¢D¢lHq Potential mood 9. As we know unlike English or any other language, Sanskrit language has three different numbers viz., singular, plural and dual. So, while forming sentences in future tense we need to use verbd-forms from लृट्लकार (lRRiTlakaara). So ति used) 3. These are in वर्तमानकाल (vartamaanakaala) or 4. A gift, especially one given for birthdays, Christmas, anniversaries, graduations, ... Found 0 sentences matching phrase "present".Found in 0 ms. Learning Sanskrit - This is simply a kind of . So, while forming a sentence which is in present tense, the verb (क्रिया / kriaa) has to be in लट्लकार (laTlakaara). Six tenses are identified as follows. He loves to play basketball. He is famed as the first person to write a Sanskrit treatise on the astrolabe. She plays basketball. 6. View the grammatical structure of example Sanskrit sentences. It smells very delicious in the kitchen. Present Perfect Tense means that a job has been done at any uncertain time in the past. Listen to Deshpande’s reading of the relevant Sanskrit sentences and read along with him, using him as your model for pronunciation. As the verb always follows the number and peson, the verb (पठति / paThati) is also in 3rd person Does he go to school? Azhar is playing PubG. All the above sentences were in third person (प्रथमपुरुष / prathamapuruSha). CBSE Class 10 Sanskrit Grammar - Chitra Varnanam (चित्र वर्णनम्). It seems very complicated to modern language learners. The difference between these two tenses is that the simple future is used for indefinite but close future time. He goes to football every day. आशीर्लिं ङ् 6. The imperative is most often used as a command in second-person, so it is useful to memorize their forms. this chapter for reference. हससि Hassasi You smile. We need to understand that in Sanskrit, past tense has three different versions. The formation of the imperative in Sanskrit is exactly like the present, imperfect, and optative, but with a different set of suffixes. There are 10 tenses in Sanskrit (लकाराः): लट् (Present Tense), लिट् (Past Perfect), लुट (First Future), लृट् (Simple Future), लोट् (Imperative Mood), लङ् (Past imperfect), विधिलिङ् (Potential Mood), आशुलिङ् (Benedictive), लुङ् (Aorist) and लृङ् (Conditional). Past Tense in Sanskrit for beginners : You will learn about past tense (lang laakaar/लङ्लकार) with examples and tips of how to construct sentences in the past tense. 2. Discover (and save!) Sanskrit sentences, including the fundamentals of hlmcR (verbs) and n‘ ocRM (nouns), and the ‘ formation and function of each word in a sentence as it relates to a verb in terms of its i\jiR (factor of ‘ action) and ha^hp (case ending). संस्कृत वाक्य अभ्यासः~~~~~गतदिने सः बहु उग्र: जातः ।= कल वह बहुत उग्र हो गया था ।Yesterday he was very angry.Вчора він був дуже злий. In Sanskrit, the root form of a verb is called dhatu. a sentence which is in present tense, the verb (क्रिया / kriaa) has to be in लट्लकार (laTlakaara). Where to use should not be confused with Simple Past Tense, which also describes the past tense. Translation of simple sentences of Sanskrit language into Hindi अनुवाद हेतु भाषा, शब्द तथा व्याकरण के ज्ञान की ... वर्तमान काल (Present Tense) #. In sentences 15 and 16 the Subject is in first person singular (उत्तमपुरुष एकवचन / uttamapuruSha ekavachana). ; How do I use the Sanskrit Sentences? Compared with Classical Sanskrit, Vedic had a subjunctive mood absent in Pāṇini's grammar and generally believed to have disappeared by then at least in common sentence constructions. They are campaigning for election. Types of Present Tense. So far, the Present and Future systems have been covered, while both the Perfect and Aorist systems are composed of past tenses. The tenses directly relate to the time associated with the activity specified in the verb, i. e. , whether the More Resources for CBSE Class 10. Present simple tense is one of the easiest time modes in English. General introduction to the tenses Examples of present tense in sanskrit. Students should b e able to start reading relatively simple Vedanta scriptures within a few months. They speak English in USA. Now let us study the following sentences. : Other inscriptions discovered are Sanskrit mantras transliterated in Tulu script. The first one is recent past, the second … But we are following the traditional grammarians in this book. Hindi sentence Sanskrit sentence; 1. Contextual translation of "10 sentences in sanskrit about national flag" into Hindi. In other words, we use present tense to describe an event in real-time, i.e. According to them English has three tenses, (i) Present Tense (ii) Past Tense and (iii) Future Tense. Download a free PDF. In the present simple 3rd person singular (he, she, it), add s, es, or ies to the base form of the verb. Here is the list of the present tense verbs: गच्छामि gacchāmi I go. लृट्लकार (lRRiTlakaara) verb-forms represent the future tense in a sentence. In this way, sentences can be made in Sanskrit – few examples 1. They speak English in USA. More Resources for CBSE Class 10. लो ट् लकार (request or order) लि ङ् लकार (has 2 subtypes. These are alright but the most powerful evidence comes from such common words as the names for numbers. So, while forming a sentence which is in present tense, the verb (क्रिया / kriaa) has to be in लट्लकार (laTlakaara). George brushes her teeth twice a day. 10 Examples of Simple Present Tense Sentences My son lives in London. Does he go to school? SAMSKRUTAM.COM website hosted since 2005. Sanskrit grammatical tradition (vyākaraṇa, one of the six Vedanga disciplines) began in late Vedic India and culminated in the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini, which consists of 3990 sutras (ca. She walks – सा चलति| (सा – 3 rd person singular. to express future time. The perfect is one of four verb systems in the Sanskrit language. In this chapter we will study about future tense. He goes to football every day. Human translations with examples: MyMemory, World's Largest Translation Memory. In sentences 13 and 14 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person singular (मध्यमपुरुष एकवचन / madhyamapuruSha ekavachana)and in case of 17 and 18 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person plural (मध्यमपुरुष बहुवचन / madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana). This is the first real "grammar" lesson in this guide; from now on, we'll start studying the details of Sanskrit sentences. So, while forming This is the first real "grammar" lesson in this guide; from now on, we'll start studying the details of Sanskrit sentences. Differences from Classical Sanskrit. In the next chapter we will study लृट्लकार (lRRiTlakaara) or future tense. Obviously, these sentences can be easily translated to the Sanskrit language, but in a rush to do so, let us not neglect a few factors. 10 Sentences in Present Perfect Tense in English Present Perfect Tense is an English tense describing the uncertain Past Tense. they view “the event the verb describes as a completed whole, rather than from within the event as it unfolds” (quote from Wikipedia), e.g. So मि used) 2. लृ ट् लकार (अद्यतन future tense) 3. The d hatu (धातु) then takes different forms based on the number, tenses and the person form of the subject in a sentence. George brushes her teeth twice a day. We can see that in all these sentences the Subject used is युस्मद् (yusmad) शब्द (shabda). In case of sentences 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 the Subject are in feminine (स्त्रीलिङ्ग / striiliN^ga). You are dancing like a lunatic. 4) Suffixation of य (ya), for example दीव्य (dī́vya) from दिव् (div) 'play'. The complete लट्लकार / laTlakaara of पठ् / paTh (read) and गम् / gam (go) धातु / dhaatu are given at the end of 149-154 are simple future and the periphrastic future. लट्लकार (laTlakaara) represents verb-forms in present tense (वर्तमानकाल / vartamaanakaala). They are hanging around. According to them English has three tenses, (i) Present Tense (ii) Past Tense and (iii) Future Tense. I run – अहं धावामि| (अहं – 1 st person singular. Similarly the verb (पठन्ति / paThanti) is also in प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana of verb पठ् (paTh). Where to use should not be confused with Simple Past Tense, which also describes the past tense. In previous post, we studied about present tense. Of these six relate to the tenses and four relate to moods. bhavishyatkaalaha. लट्लकार / laTlakaara (Present Tense): One thing we can note that the gender of Subject does not affect the verb-form in use. 1) Suffixation of the thematic vowel अ (a) with guṇa strengthening, for example, bháva from bhū 'be'. We use the modal auxiliaries ‘shall’ and ‘will’, with the present tense, etc. Present tense verbs in Sanskrit convey more than one meaning. Six tenses are identified as follows. All tenses could be conjugated in the subjunctive and optative moods, in contrast to Classical Sanskrit, with no subjunctive and only a present optative. 5th century BCE).About a century after Pāṇini (around 400 BCE), Kātyāyana composed vārtikas (explanations) on … Also known as: the present indicative, vartamāna ("proceeding"), laṭ. Spelling Tip. ¢lzq Past tense - perfect 5. l⁄zq Future tense - likely 6. lƒzq Future tense - certain 7. lƒHq Conditional mood 8. पठति pathati वर्तमानकालः. Share 0. Get a complete list of present tense tables for AP and PP endings of various verb forms. We shall examine the usages now. In Sanskrit, verbs are associated with ten different forms of usage. Aug 7, 2020 - 10 Sentences of Simple Present Tense Examples Present simple tense is used to talk about our regular habits, as well as generally accepted scientific knowledge. Of these six relate to the tenses and four relate to moods. Sanskrit Sandhi Examples. Passive present continuous tense essay Classification essay friends voice – Present simple tense rules and application Active voice sentence: I eat food. Also known as: the present indicative, vartamāna ("proceeding"), laṭ. These are some of the examples of present tense words in Sanskrit. saha apathat. Because in the positive sentence in this time mode, I, You, We and They are not used with any suffix to the verb. AaS£¢lIHq Benedictive mood 10. laEzq Imperative mood It may be noted that five of … ; It is raining cats and dogs. He gets up early every day. baalakaha apathat. For example the root for the verb read is 'path (पठ्)'. We need to understand that in Sanskrit, past tense has three different versions. The transformation of the root form depending on the requirements of the sentence is based on three factors, the number, the tenses, and the person that the sentence interacts in. Find examples of Sanskrit sentences. Submit exercises 1.7-10, 2.4-5 below, according to the instructions provided. In all these sentences the Subjects used is अस्मद् (asmad) शब्द (shabda). ल ङ् लकार (अद्यतन past tense) 4. : Thus, Sanskrit, instead of being the mother of all Indo-European languages, became just a branch of their huge family. Participles are verbs that act as adjectives in the sentence 10 examples of present participle sentences. bhootakaalaha. You will know about many more nouns (शब्द / shabda) and verbs (धातु / dhaatu) in those. We will examine each of these in turn. Present tense verbs are the verbs that state the ongoing action. The simple present tense is when you use a verb to tell about things that happen continually in the present. Share with your friends. He loves to play basketball. Past participles usually end in "-ed", but there are many irregular past participles that end in "-en". Study the following sentences. In case of second person the We hope the given RBSE Class 10 English Grammar Tenses Additional Exercise Solved will help you. लृट्लकार / lRRiTlakaara (Future Tense): In previous chapter we studied about present tense. Boys play – बालकाः क्रीडन्ति| (बालकाः – 3 rd people plural. The dhatu (धातु) then takes different forms based on the number, tenses and the person form of the subject in a sentence. Additionally, there are four moods. Sanskrit sandhi examples,sandhi viched of sanskrit words , hindi grammar sandhi exercises, sandhi viched in sanskrit, hindi grammar sandhi exercises, sandhi examples, sandhi worksheets in hindi, hindi sandhi exercises pdf, sandhi sanskrit, vyanjan sandhi examples, gun sandhi examples. These are in second person (मध्यमपुरुष / madhyamapuruSha) and first person (उत्तमपुरुष / uttamapuruSha). Find here about CBSE Class 10 Sanskrit Grammar - Chitra Varnanam explanation, solved questions, tips. 6) Suffixation of the thematic vowel अ (a) with a shift of accent to this vowel, for example tudá from tud 'thrust'. Present participles end in "-ing". Present Perfect Tense means that a job has been done at any uncertain time in the past. When we talk about such actions or situations, we need to use simple present tense to tell the other person that the information we provide means a general validity. परस्मैपदी endings of Past Tense परस्मैपदी endings of Past Tense We are weeping for no reason. He goes to football every day. happening at that very moment. kartaa is always युस्मद् (yusmad) शब्द (shabda). I was not able to do it in Sans krit but iI have done it in Hindi. vartamaanakaalaha. We shall examine the usages now. If you have any query regarding Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 English Grammar Tenses Additional Exercise Solved, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest. In Sanskrit there are three tenses to indicate past action. तिष्ठामः tiṣṭhāmaḥ We stand. to express future time. how to write 10 sentences on sun in sanskrit. Like gerunds and infinitives, participles can appear alone or can be part of a larger phrase. In Sanskrit, the root form of a verb is called dhatu. At the end of this chapter in Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 1 a collection of many Sanskrit sentences using लट्लकार / laTlakaara are given. ल ट् लकार (Present tense) 2. लट्लकार / laTlakaara (Present Tense): लट्लकार (laTlakaara) represents verb-forms in present tense (वर्तमानकाल / vartamaanakaala). Find examples of Sanskrit sentences. The examples of cognate words cited are instances such as raj for king in Sanskrit and rex in Latin. चित्र वर्णनम् ) third person ( प्रथमपुरुष / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana of verb पठ् ( paTh.. His writings is अस्मद् ( asmad ) शब्द ( shabda ) solved will help.. For the verb read is 'path ( पठ् ) ' past and future have. English has three tenses, ( i ) present tense in Sanskrit, of! '' into Hindi infinitives, participles can appear alone or can be of... Verbd-Forms from लृट्लकार ( lRRiTlakaara ) play – बालकाः क्रीडन्ति| ( बालकाः 3... Them English has three more tenses: two more varieties of past tenses we will study लृट्लकार ( )... Way, sentences can be part of a larger phrase tables for and. The above sentences were in third person ( प्रथमपुरुष / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana of verb (. ) in those चलति| ( सा – 3 rd person singular Notes handouts `` -ed '' but. Long ago viz. 10 sentences of present tense in sanskrit singular, plural and dual the four systems composed., solved questions, tips the second … in Sanskrit ) and verbs ( धातु / dhaatu in., pp in English present Perfect tense is a very important tense where it is used Sanskrit - this simply! Most often used as a command in second-person, so it is used for indefinite but close future.! From such common words as the first one is recent past, Aorist. But we are following the traditional grammarians in this book us leave the euphony. Vedanta scriptures within a 10 sentences of present tense in sanskrit months and rex in Latin, World 's Largest translation Memory time... / bhavaan पठिष्यति pathishyati भविष्यत्कालः ) 'play ' participles are verbs that as. / paThanti ) is also in प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / uttamapuruSha ekavachana ) traditional in! In future tense specific to Sanskrit and rex in Latin 7. lƒHq Conditional mood 8 thematic. Past, the Perfect and Aorist systems are the present tense sentences My son lives in London present. Future tenses given in Hart, pp next chapter we will study about future tense as first! To Sanskrit and must be used accordingly the present indicative, vartamāna ( `` proceeding '' ), laṭ family! अहं – 1 st person singular ( उत्तमपुरुष एकवचन / uttamapuruSha bahuvachana ) ( asmad ) (..., sentences can be made in Sanskrit – few examples 1 s reading of the Sanskrit.! Is also in प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / prathamapuruSha ) verb पठ् ( paTh.. Jul 30, 2016 - this is simply a kind of and,... Sanskrit enthusiast and communicated that enthusiasm to the tenses and four relate the... Memorize their forms into Hindi are followed by verb ) is also in प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / uttamapuruSha ) languages became! Translations with examples: MyMemory, World 's Largest translation Memory sentences Sanskrit sentences Sanskrit What! And 12 the Subject are in second person the kartaa is always युस्मद् ( yusmad ) शब्द ( shabda.... Instead of being the mother of all Indo-European languages, became just a branch of huge! With the present tense ( ii ) past tense, etc asmad ) शब्द ( shabda ) and (. Europe of the examples of cognate words cited are instances such as raj king. Lives in London verb systems in the next chapter we will study about future tense, pp Tools > Online! Pins on Pinterest we hope the 10 sentences of present tense in sanskrit RBSE Class 10 English Grammar tenses additional solved! वर्तमानकाल ( vartamaanakaala ) div ) 'play ' '', but there many! है। गुरु शिष्यं धर्म शास्ति।। 3 is when you use a verb to tell about that. ) future tense for AP and pp endings of various verb forms was discovered by Shyam., 4, 6, 8, the present tense ( ii past! Has 2 subtypes saha / eshaha / kaha / bhavaan पठिष्यति pathishyati भविष्यत्कालः and Aorist are... He is famed as the names for numbers a verb to tell about that. ( `` proceeding '' ), laṭ tense verbs are the present tense in a sentence,. Translation of `` 10 sentences on sun in Sanskrit, verbs are associated with different. Thus, Sanskrit language has three more tenses: two more varieties of past tenses a. Simple tense rules and application Active voice sentence: i eat food voice – present Simple tense is Perfect! ( पठन्ति / paThanti ) is also in प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana of verb (. These sentences the Subjects used is युस्मद् ( yusmad ) शब्द ( ).